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Evolution of computers

2400 BC
the first known calculator, the abacus, was invented in Babyloni
500 BC Panini: the Indian Mathematician introduces the forerunner to modern formal language theory
300 BC
Pingala: invents the binary number system
87 BC
Antikythera Mechanism: Built in Rhodes to track movement of the stars
60 AD
Heron of Alexandria:
invents machines which are able to follow a series of instructions
Liang Ling-Can: invents the first fully mechanical clock 


Leonardo da Vinci: Drawings by Leonardo da Vinci depict inventions such as flying machines, including a helicopter, the first mechanical calculator and one of the first programmable robots
1613 The word “computer” was first recorded as being used in 1613 and was originally used to describe a person who performed calculations or computations. The definition of a computer remained the same until the end of the 19th century when it began referring to a machine that performed calculations.
John Napier:
invents a system of moveable rods (Napier’s Rods) based on logarithms which were able to multiply, divide and calculate square and cube roots
Oughtred: develops the slide rule (it was circular in shape)
Calculating Clock:
  is invented by Wilhelm Schickard
Blaise Pascal:
invents the the “Pascaline”, a mechanical adding machine
Gottfried Leibniz: becomes known as one of the founding fathers of calculus
1714 The first writing device (similar to a typewriter) to be patented is patented by Henry Mill in London England.
Joseph-Marie Jacquard:
invents an automatic loom controlled by punched cards
Arithmometer: The Arithmometer was the first mass-produced calculator invented by Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar
Charles Babbage:
designs his first mechanical computer
1823 Baron Jons Jackob Berzelius discovers silicon (Si), which today is the basic component of an integrated circuit (IC).
Analytical Engine:
The Analytical Engine was invented by Charles Babbage
Morse code:
is invented by Samuel Morse
Boolean algebra:
is devised by George Boole
William Stanley Jevons:
designs a practical logic machine
Verea: invents a fast calculator with an internal multiplication table
1878 The first keyboard to have a Shift key is introduced on the Remington No. 2 typewriter introduced in 1878 that had one Shift key on the left side of the keyboard.
Alexander Graham Bell:
invents the telephone called the Photophone
The Comptometer which is operated by pressing keys is developed by Dorr E. Felt
Herman Hollerith:
invents a counting machine which has  increment mechanical counters
Guglielmo Marconi: develops radio signals
Tabulating Machine Company:
  is formed by Herman Hollerith which later becomes IBMHerman Hollerith starts the Tabulating Machine Company, the company later becomes the well-known computer company IBM (International Business Machines).


Nikola Tesla: invents the remote control
1902 The French silent film “A Trip to the Moon” is first released and is considered to be the first science fiction film.
Lee De Forest:
devises the first electronic tube
IBM is formed on June 15, 1911
1912 G. N. Lewis begins work on the lithium battery.
1915 The first telephone call is made across the continent.
1921 Czech playwright Karel Capek coins the term “robot” in the 1921 play RUR (Rossum’s Universal Robots).
Philo Farnsworth:
devises the first fully electronic television
Logie Baird:  invents the Electro Mechanical television system
Walther Bothe:
develops the logic gate
1927 Philo Taylor Farnsworth becomes the first person to successfully transmit a TV signal on September 7, 1927.
1928 The Galvin Manufacturing corporation begins on September 25, 1928, the company will later be known as Motorola.
Vannevar Bush: develops a partly electronic Difference Engine (the precursor to the digital computer)
Godel:  publishes a paper on the use of a universal formal language


While working on a radio, Paul Eisler invents the Printed Circuit Board (PCB).

Dvorak receives a patent for the Dvorak keyboard May 12, 1936.

Alan Turing:
develops the concept of a theoretical computing machine
Zuse:  creates the Z1 Computer a binary digital computer using punch tape
George Stibitz:
develops the Complex Number Calculator – a foundation for digital computers
Hewlett Packard:
  William Hewlett and David Packard start their computer company

John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford Berry: develop the  ABC (Atanasoft-Berry Computer) prototype

Adolf Hitler uses the Enigma encryption machine
Alan Turing develops the code-breaking machine Colossus
1944 Howard Aiken & Grace Hopper: design the MARK series of computers at Harvard University
1945 ENIAC: John Presper Eckert & John W. Mauchly develop the ENIAC ( Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer)

Computer Bug:
the term computer ‘bug’ is first used by Grace Hopper

F.C. Williams:
develops his cathode-ray tube (CRT) storing device, the forerunner to  random-access memory (RAM)
1947 Pilot ACE: Donald Watts Davies joins Alan Turing to build the fastest digital computer in England at the time, the Pilot ACE

William Shockley:
invents the transistor at Bell Labs

Douglas Engelbart: theorises on interactive computing with keyboard and screen display instead of on punchcards

1948 Andrew Donald Booth: invents magnetic drum memory

Calland Williams  & Tom Kilburn: develop the SSEM “Small Scale Experimental Machine” digital CRT storage which was soon nicknamed the “Baby”


1949 Claude Shannon: builds the first machine that plays chess

Howard Aiken: develops the Harvard-MARK III

1950 Hideo Yamachito: creates the  first electronic computer in Japan

Alan Turing: publishes his paper – Computing Machinery and Intelligence which helps create the Turing Test

  T. Raymond Thompson and  John Simmons develop the first business computer, the Lyons Electronic Office (LEO) at Lyons Co.UNIVAC: UNIVAC I (UNIVersal Automatic Computer I) is introduced –  the first commercial computer made in the United States and designed principally by John Presper Eckert & John W. Mauchly

: The EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) begins performing basic tasks. Unlike the ENIAC, it was binary rather than decimal

1953 The IBM 701 becomes available and a total of 19 are sold to the scientific community
John Backus & IBM:
develop the FORTRAN Computer Programming Language
Bell Labs: introduces its first transistor computer
1956 Optical fibre is invented by  Basil Hirschowitz, C. Wilbur Peters, and Lawrence E. Curtiss
1957 Sputnik I and Sputnik II: are launched by the Russians
1958 ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) and NASA is formed

Silicon chip:
the first integrated circuit, or silicon chip, is produced by Jack Kilby & Robert Noyce

1959 Paul Baran: theorises on the “survivability of communication systems under nuclear attack”, digital technology and symbiosis between humans and machines
the Common Business-Oriented Language (COBOL) programming language is invented
1961 Unimate: General Motors puts the first industrial robot, Unimate, to work in a New Jersey factory
1962 The first computer game:  the Spacewar Computer Game is created invented by Steve Russell & MIT
1963 The Computer Mouse: Douglas Engelbart invents and patents the first computer mouse (nicknamed the mouse because the tail came out the end)

The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) is developed to standardize data exchange among computers

1964 Word processor: IBM introduces the first word processor

  John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz develop Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Language (BASIC)

1965 Hypertext:  Andries van Dam and Ted Nelson coin the term “hypertext”

Floppy Disk: IBM creates the first floppy disk



1969 Seymour Cray: develops the CDC 7600, the first supercomputer

Starkweather: invents the laser printer whilst working with Xerox

ARPANET:  The U.S. Department of Defence sets up the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) with the intention of creating a computer network that can withstand any type of disaster. It becomes the first building block for what the internet is has become today

1970 RAM: Intel introduces the world’s first available dynamic RAM ( random-access memory) chip and the first microprocessor, the Intel 4004
1971 E-mail: is invented by  Ray Tomlinson

Liquid Crystal Display ( LCD ):
is developed by  James Fergason

Pocket calculator: is invented by Sharp Corporation

Floppy Disk: is created by David Noble with IBM – Nicknamed the “Floppy” for its flexibility.

1972 First Video Game: Atari releases Pong, the first commercial video game

The CD:
  the compact disc is invented in the United States.

1973 Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs: creates the Ethernet, a local-area network (LAN) protocol

Personal computer: The minicomputer Xerox Alto (1973) was a landmark step in the development of personal computers

Gateways: Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn develop gateway routing computers to negotiate between the various national networks

1974 SQL: IBM develops SEQUEL (Structured English Query Language ) now known as SQL

 Charles Simonyi coins the term WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) to describe the ability of being able to display a file or document exactly how it is going to be printed or viewed


1975 Portable computers: The Altair 8800 is developed by Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (MITS) and the first personal home computer is released on 23 Jan, 1975

Microsoft Corporation: is founded April 4, 1975 by Bill Gates and Paul Allen to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800

1976 Apple: Apple Computers is founded by Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs on 1 Apr 1976 (April Fools Day)
1977 Apple Computer’s Apple II, the first personal computer with colour graphics, is demonstrated

Ward Christensen writes the programme “MODEM” allowing two microcomputers to exchange files with each other over a phone line

1978 Magnetic tape: The first magnetic tape is developed in the US
1979 Over half a million computers are in use in the United States
1980 Paul Allen and Bill Gates: IBM hires Paul Allen and Bill Gates to create an operating system for a new PC. They buy the rights to a simple operating system manufactured by Seattle Computer Products and use it as a template to develop DOS


1981 Microsoft: MS-DOS Computer Operating System increases its success
1982 WordPerfect: the WordPerfect Corporation introduces WordPerfect 1.0 a word processing program

Commodore 64:
  becomes the best-selling computer of all time.

SMTP: SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) is introduced for the first time

1983 More than 10 million computers are in use in the United States

Domain Name System (DNS):
is pioneered by Jon Postel, Paul Mockapetris and Craig Partridge. Seven ‘top-level’ domain names are initially introduced: edu, com, gov, mil, net, org and int.

Microsoft Windows: is introduced eliminating the need for a user to have to type each command, like MS-DOS, by using a mouse to navigate through drop-down menus, tabs and icons

1984 Apple Macintosh: Apple introduces the Macintosh with mouse and window interface on 24 Jan, 1984

William Gibson coins the word cyberspace when he publishes Neuromancer

Dell Computer is founded in Austin Texas on 3 May, 1984

1985 Paul Brainard introduces Pagemaker for the Macintosh creating the desktop publishing field

Nintendo: The Nintendo Entertainment System makes its debut.


Microsoft Windows 1.0 is introduced on 19 Nov, 1985 and is initially sold for $100.00


1986 More than 30 million computers are in use in the United States.
1987 Microsoft introduces Microsoft Works

Perl: Larry Wall introduces Perl 1.0

1988 Over 45 million PCs are in use in the United States.
1990 The Internet, World Wide Web & Tim Berners-Lee:  Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau propose a ‘hypertext’ system starting the modern Internet

Microsoft and IBM
stop working together to develop operating systems

The World: the first commercial Internet dial-up access provider comes online on 20 Sep, 1990

1991 The World Wide Web is launched to the public on August 6, 1991

“I think internet was more important than personal computers although you need personal computer to use the internet, STEVE WOZNIAK “

1993 At the beginning of the year only 50 World Wide Web servers are known to exist


Microsoft releases Windows 3.0 on 20 Sep, 1990

1994 The World Wide Web Consortium is founded by Tim Berners-Lee to help with the development of common protocols for the evolution of the World Wide Web

is created in April, 1994.


1995 Java is introduced

Amazon: Amazon.com is founded by Jeff Bezos on 20 Sep, 1995

EBay is founded by Pierre Omidyar on 20 Sep,1995

Hotmail is started by Jack Smith and Sabeer Bhatia on 20 Sep, 1995

1996 WebTV: is introduced for the first time


The DVD Video format is  first introduced by Toshiba in Japan in November, 1996

Altavista introduces its free online translator Babel FishMicrosoft acquires Hotmail


1998 Google: Google is founded by Sergey Brin and Larry Page on September 7, 1998

PayPal is founded by Peter Thiel and Max Levchin

Apple Power Book G3 is released on 20 Sep, 1998

2001 Xbox: Bill Gates introduces the Xbox on 7 Jan, 2001


Windows XP: is launched on 20 Sep, 2001


Approximately 1 billion PCs have been sold

is acquired by eBay

2003 iTunes is launched on 9 Jan, 2003


Skype is launched on 20 Aug, 2003


2004 Facebook is first launched on 20 Sep, 2004

Firefox 1.0 is released on 9 Nov, 2004

Blizzard‘s World of Warcraft game, the most popular and successful MMORPG is released 23 Nov, 2004

2005 The blu-ray is first announced and introduced on 4 Jan, 2006.

YouTube begins on 14 Feb, 2005

Xbox360 is released on 20 Feb, 2005

eBay acquires Skype on September 12, 2005

2006 iPhone: the first iPhone is released on 29 Jun, 2006

SCE releases Play Station 3 on 11 Nov, 2006

Nintendo releases Wii on 19 Nov, 2006

2007 Windows Vista is released 30 Jan, 2007

Netbook: Asus released first Eee PC (netbook) on 16 Oct, 2007

2008 First Android OS and Android Smartphone is released on 21 Oct, 2008
2009 Windows 7 is released on 22 Oct, 2009
2010 The iPad is released on 3 Apr, 2010
2011 Microsoft exceeds $1 billion in sales and becomes the first company to do so
Apple introduces the iPhone 5Microsoft Windows 8 and Microsoft Surface is released October 26, 2012

Apple introduces the iPad mini October 23, 2012

The number of smart phones worldwide reaches 1 billion

2013 Apple introduces iOS7 on September 18, 2013

Microsoft releases Windows 8.1 on October 18, 2013

Sony releases the PS4 November 15, 2013

Apple outsells Windows PCs globally for the first time

2014 The Nokia deal with Microsoft is completed April 25 making Nokia now Microsoft Mobile in a deal totalling $7.17 billion

Apple introduces the new iPhone 6, iPhone 6 Plus, and Apple Watch on September 9

Microsoft announces on September 30 the next version of Windows, which will be called Windows 10

Android version 5.0 (Lollipop) released November 3

2015 Apple officially releases the Apple Watch on April 24

Microsoft releases Windows 10 on July 29

Android version 6.0 (Marshmallow) released October 5

Microsoft releases the Surface Book on October 26

2016 Pokémon GO is released July 6,for Android phones and iPhone

Google releases Android version 7.0 (Nougat) August 22

On September 16, Apple announces the new iPhone 7 and iPhone 7 Plus

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